Table of Contents

- About The Coursera
- About Methods and Statistics in Social Sciences Specialization Course
- Methods and Statistics in Social Sciences Specialization Quiz Answers
- Week 1: Basic Statistics Coursera Quiz Answers
- Quiz 1: Use of your data for research
- Quiz 2: Exploring Data

- Week 2: Basic Statistics Coursera Quiz Answers
- Quiz 1: Correlation and Regression

- Week 3: Basic Statistics Coursera Quiz Answers
- Quiz 1: Probability

- Week 4: Basic Statistics Coursera Quiz Answers
- Quiz 1: Probability distributions

- Week 5: Basic Statistics Coursera Quiz Answers
- Quiz 1: Sampling distributions

- Week 6: Basic Statistics Coursera Quiz Answers
- Quiz 1: Confidence intervals

- Week 7: Basic Statistics Coursera Quiz Answers
- Quiz 1: Significance tests

- Week 8: Basic Statistics Coursera Quiz Answers
- Quiz 1: Final Exam

- Week 1: Basic Statistics Coursera Quiz Answers
- More About This Course
- Conclusion

Hello Peers, Today we are going to share** all weekâs assessment and quiz answers** of the **Methods and Statistics in Social Sciences Specialization **course launched by **Coursera **totally **free of cost**â
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**About Methods and Statistics in Social Sciences Specialization Course**

This Specialization covers research methods, design and statistical analysis for social science research questions. In the final Capstone Project, youâll apply the skills you learned by developing your own research question, gathering data, and analyzing and reporting on the results using statistical methods.

**Course Apply Link â Methods and Statistics in Social Sciences Specialization **

**Methods and Statistics in Social Sciences Specialization Quiz Answers**

### Week 1: Basic Statistics Coursera Quiz Answers

#### Quiz 1: Use of your data for research

Q1. Please

consult the information on the research study before responding to the question

below. This information is provided as a separate content item right before

this ungraded quiz.

- Are you ok with your data being used for our research study? => Then you do not have

to respond to this question. - Do you want to withdraw consent to use your

data for scientific purposes? => You can indicate this below. Withdrawing

your consent will not affect your course experience or grades in any way. - Have you withdrawn consent earlier, but changed your mind? => If you changed you mind

and do want your data used for scientific purposes after all,

then you can indicate this below.

You

can change your response as many times as you like. Please note that

your last response will be used to determine whether you withdraw consent

or not, when we collect the data at the end of the study.

**No, I**

do not want my data to be used for

the research study described.- Yes, I do want

my data to be used for the scientific study (Iâve changed my mind).

#### Quiz 2: Exploring Data

Q1. A researcher wants to measure physical height in as much detail as possible. Which level of measurement does s/he employ?

**Ratio level**- Nominal level
- Ordinal level
- Interval level

Q2. You conduct a study on eye color and you question 550 people. 110 of them have brown eyes and 44% of them have blue eyes. What percentage of the people you questioned has blue or brown eyes? [Your answer should consist of just the number, no additional characters â so if you think the answer is 41% enter the number 41]

Ans- **64%**

Q3. In which situation is a bar graph preferred over a pie chart?

**When there are some large categories in the data.**- When the number of categories in the data is low.
- When one of the categories in the data is really large.
- When the number of categories in the data is high.

Q4. Ten students completed an exam. Their scores were: 5, 7, 2, 1, 3, 4, 8, 8, 6, 6. What is the interquartile range (IQR)?

**4**- 5,5
- 5
- 8

Q5. A researcher wants to know what people in Amsterdam think of football. He asks ten people to rate their attitude towards football on a scale from 0 (donât like football at all) to 10 (like football a lot). The ratings are as follows: 1, 10, 6, 9, 2, 5, 6, 6, 5, 10. What is the standard deviation?

- 9,3
- 6,0
- 9,2
**3,1**

Q6.You find a z-score of -1.99. Which statement(s) is/are true?

**The standard deviation of the test is negative.****The score lies almost two standard deviations from the mean.**- The score falls below the mean score.
- 1.99 people scored higher than the person in question.

Q7. Which of the following statements is true?

I. The stronger the skew, the smaller the difference between the median and the mean.

II. The larger the variance, the smaller the standard deviation.

- Statement II is true, statement I is false.
- Both statements are true.
**Both statements are false.**- Statement I is true, statement II is false.

Q8. The grades for a statistics exam are as follows: 3, 5, 5, 6, 7.5, 6, 5, 1, 10, 4. Which score is an outlier? (Use the interquartile range (IQR).)

**Answer- 10**

Q9. How many goals have the top strikers of the Dutch Eredivisie football competition scored? We look at 10 strikers and obtained the following information: 12, 10, 11, 12, 11, 14, 15, 18, 21, 11. The (1) âŠ of the dataset equals 12, the mean equals (2) âŠ and the (3) âŠ equals 11. The standard deviation equals (4) âŠ Fill in the right words/numbers on the dots.

- (1) Median, (2) 11, (3) Mode, (4) 3.57
**(1) Median, (2) 13.5, (3) Mode, (4) 3.57**- (1) Mode, (2) 13.5, (3) Median, (4) 12.72
- (1) Mode, (2) 11, (3) Median, (4) 12.72

Q10. What is true about a variance of zero? (Multiple answers possible.)

- This is only the case when you take a sample of n=1.
**The standard deviation equals zero as well.****There is no variability in the scores: everybody has the same score.**

Q11. What is the difference between variables and constants?

- Constants are discrete variables, variables are continuous variables.
- Constants vary across cases, variables do not vary.
**Variables vary across cases, constants do not vary.**- Variables are discrete variables, constants are continuous variables.

### Week 2: Basic Statistics Coursera Quiz Answers

#### Quiz 1: Correlation and Regression

Q1. You want to visualise the results of a study. When assessing only one ordinal or nominal variable it is sufficient to use a (1) âŠ. When looking at the relationship between two of these ordinal or nominal variables youâd better use a (2) âŠ. When youâre assessing the correlation between two continuous variables itâs best to use a (3) âŠ Fill in the right words on the dots.

- (1) Scatterplot, (2) Frequency table, (3) Contingency table
- (1) Contingency table, (2) Scatterplot, (3) Frequency table
**(1) Frequency table, (2) Contingency table, (3) Scatterplot**- (1) Contingency table, (2) Frequency table, (3) Scatterplot

Q2. Which statement(s) about correlations is/are right?

I. When dealing with a positive Pearsonâs r, the line goes up.

II. When the observations cluster around a straight line weâre dealing with a linear relation between the variables.

III. The steeper the line, the smaller the correlation.

- All statements are true.
- Statement I and III are true, statement II is false.
**Statement I and II are true, statement III is false.**- Statement II is true, statements I and III are false.

Q3. Youâve collected the following data about the amount of chocolate people eat and how happy these people are.

Amount of chocolate bars a week: 2, 4, 1.5, 2, 3.

Grades for happiness: 7, 3, 8, 8, 6.

(Note, the numbers are in the right order so person one eats 2 chocolate bars and scores her happiness with a 7.)

Compute the Pearsonâs r.

- 0.93
**-0.96**- -3.86
- 0.00

Q4. Youâve investigated how eating chocolate bars influences a studentâs grades. Youâve done this by asking people to keep track of their chocolate intake (in bars per week) and by assessing their exam results one day later. Which statement(s) about the regression line y-hat = 0.66x + 1.99 is/are true?

**If you donât eat chocolate at all, your grade will equal 1.99.**- Eating chocolate bars makes your grades lower.
- If your grade becomes one point higher, you will eat 0.66 more chocolate a week.
**If you eat one more chocolate bar a week, your grade becomes 0.66 higher.**

Q5. A professor uses the following formula to grade a statistics exam:

y-hat = 0.5 + 0.53x. After obtaining the results the professor realizes that the grades are very low, so he might have been too strict. He decides to level up all results by one point. What will be the new grading equation?

- y-hat = 1.5 + 1.53x
**y-hat = 1.5 + 0.53x**- y-hat = 0.5 + 0.53x
- y-hat + 1 = 0.5 + 0.53x

Q6. What is the explained variance? And how can you measure it?

- The explained variance is the percentage of the variance in the dependent variable that can be explained using the formula of the regression line. You can measure this with Pearsonâs r.
**The explained variance is the percentage of the variance in the dependent variable that can be explained using the formula of the regression line. You can measure this with r-squared.**- The explained variance is the variance of the dependent variable. You can measure this with Pearsonâs r.
- The explained variance is the variance of the dependent variable. You can measure this with r-squared.

Q7. You want to know how much of the variance in your dependent variable Y is explained by your independent variable X. Determine for the following three cases how much variance is explained and arrange the cases in ascending order (from lower to higher explained variance).

(1) r = .80

(2) 50 percent of the variance in Y is explained by X.

(3) R-squared = .78

- (1) (2) (3)
**(2) (1) (3)**- (1) (3) (2)
- (2) (3) (1)

Q8. A teacher asks his students to fill in a form about how many cigarettes they smoke every week and how much they weigh. After obtaining the results he makes a scatterplot and analyses the datapoints. He computes the Pearsonâs r to assess the correlation. He finds a correlation of .80. He concludes that smoking more cigarettes causes high body weight. What is wrong with this analysis?

**He concludes that smoking causes high body weight. This is not possible after having conducted a regression analysis.**- He uses a scatterplot. He has to use a frequency table.
- A correlation of .80 is too low to conclude anything about the relationship between smoking and body weight.
- There is nothing wrong with the analysis.

Q9. What can you conclude about a Pearsonâs r that is bigger than 1?

**This is impossible. Correlations are always between -1 and 1.**- This is impossible. Correlations are always between 0 and 1.
- There is a non-linear relationship between X and Y.
- The correlation is very high.

Q10. Why do you use squared residuals when computing the regression line?

**Because the residuals can cancel each other out (i.e. their sum equals zero).**- To make the differences between the predicted values and the real data points even clearer.
- To balance the results (because you take the squared root later on).
- Because you have an X-value and a Y-value for every data point.

### Week 3: Basic Statistics Coursera Quiz Answers

#### Quiz 1: Probability

Q1. Your friend told you about someone really smart who made a good deal with the bank regarding his/her mortgage and who knows everything about the financial crisis that started in 2008. Which of the following statements is more likely?

I. Your friend talked about a man.

II. Your friend talked about a man with a job in the banking world.

- Both statements are equally likely.
**Statement I is more likely.**- Statement II is more likely

Q2. You roll a dice five times. The outcomes are: 6 6 6 6 6. Then you repeat this and you find: 1 4 3 5 2.

Which of the following outcomes is most likely?

- The first outcome is more likely.
**The second outcome is more likely.**- Both outcomes are equally likely

Q3. Imagine youâre at the beach. Youâre really thirsty and decide to go to a beach stand to get some coke. When you arrive you see thereâs a queue consisting of two girls and one boy. Unfortunately the stand has only one coke left. Youâve learned that three in ten girls drink coke and 60 percent of boys drink coke.

How likely is it that you will get the coke?

- 0.054
**0.196**- 0.946
- 0.804

Q4. You ask a couple of people at the beach what they think about the seagulls. You propose them the statement: Seagulls are annoying. Their responses are as follows:

- 20% strongly agree
- 13% agree
- 12% neutral
- 50% disagree
- 5% strongly disagree

What is the chance of a random person responding with âagreeâ given that he/she is not neutral?

- 0.52
- 0.25
- 0.13
**0.15**

Q5. Imagine you ask some students which subject they prefer: statistics or English. There are a lot of people that love statistics (B) and a lot of people that love English (C). However, there are also people that canât make a decision and tell you that they like both the subjects (D). When you look further into the results you realise that all the female students had a positive opinion about statistics (A).

Which of these events (A, B, C, D) are disjoint?

- A and C & B and C
- A and D & B and C
- B and C & C and D
**A and C & A and D**

Q6. You collect four shells from the beach. You know that there are only three types of shells on the beach, and these shells occur in equal amounts. How many different events are possible?

- 3
- 12
**81**- 4

Q7. Twenty people take a statistics exam. Jonas scored five out of ten and Emma scored eight out of ten. Every score (1 to 10) is equally likely. What is the chance of a random person out of the people that took the exam scoring higher than Jonas, but lower than Emma?

- 0.22
- 0.8
- 0.4
**0.2**

Q8. How can we define probability or chance?

- as a probable value that a random variable will take
**as a long-run relative frequency**- as the relative uncertainty about events
- as the average or expeted value of a random variable

Q9. You are rushing out to get to your appointment in 30 minutes. From experience you know that most of the time you travel this distance in 30 minutes. However, half of the time there is heavy traffic. In the past, there has been heavy traffic and you have made it to your appointment within 30 minutes 34% of the time.

You get out on the street and see that there is heavy traffic. What is the chance you will get to your appointment on time?

- 0.17
**0.68**- 0.5
- 0.34

Q10. What is the probability of event A given event B?

- 1.03
- 0.16
- 0.73
**0.42**

Q11. You have a pot with 100 balls. 20 of them are red, 50 are blue and 30 are green. You decide to draw 5 balls from the pot without replacement (i.e. you donât put a ball back in the pot once it has been taken out). What is the probability of drawing five blue balls?

Give your answer to 3 decimal places.

**Answer:**

**choose(100, 5)choose(50, 5)choose(50, 5) / choose(100, 5)# [1] 0.02814225**

Q12. On a single train journey there is a probability of 0.4 that your ticket will be checked. You make a return-journey, what is the probability that your ticket will be checked only once?

Give your answer as a proportion, rounding to two decimal places.

Answer:0.4 * 0.6 + 0.6 * 0.4

# [1] 0.48

Q13. You roll a pair of dice 20 times and record how often you get a total of 5 or 10. What is your best guess for the relative frequency that this event (a total of 5 or 10) occurs without seeing the actual data?

Give your answer as a proportion, rounding to three decimal places.

Enter Answer Here

Q14. The chance that the front light on your bike will fail is 0.2, the chance that your rear light will fail is 0.1 and the chance that both will fail is 0.04. What is the chance that both lights will work? (regardless of the answer you should do something about this situation of course).

Give your answer as a proportion, rounding to two decimal places.

**Answer:**

7 / 36

# [1] 0.1944444

Q15. Which of the following statements are correct?

I. A discrete random variable can take a finite number of distinct values.

II. Height is an example of a continuous random variable.

**Both statements are correct.**- Statement I is correct, statement II is incorrect.
- Statement I is incorrect, statement II is correct.
- Both statements are incorrect.

### Week 4: Basic Statistics Coursera Quiz Answers

#### Quiz 1: Probability distributions

Q1. The ice cream shop has problems with the delivery of the different flavours. As a consequence the shop doesnât have the same amount of flavours every day. In the following list you see the probability distribution of the different amounts of flavours.

Amount of flavours (probability)

- 4 (0.14)
- 5 (0.35)
- 6 (0.31)
- 7 (0.20)

What is the mean amount of flavours the ice cream shop sells? Give your answer in two decimals.

**Answer: 5.57**

Q2. Which of the following statements is/are correct?

I. A discrete random variable can take a finite number of distinct values.

II. Height (as measured in cm) is an example of a continuous random variable.

- Both statements are false.
**Both statements are true.**- Statement I is true, statement II is false.
- Statement II is true, statement I is false.

Q3. A researcher is interested in the time people spend online on social media per day. She plots the probability distribution for this variable using hours as the unit, and it looks as follows:

What happens to the graph if she decides to measure the time in minutes instead of hours?

- The graph stays the same. Only the values on the x-axis change.
- The graph becomes steeper.
**The graph stays the same apart from the values on both axes.**- The graph becomes flatter.

Q4. Consider the following discrete probability distribution.

What is the probability of X being higher than 2?

- 0.80
- 0.33
**0.47**- 0.53

Q5. You investigate the number of earthquakes that occur in a year. You get the following outcomes:

What is the variance of this random phenomenon? Give your answer in two decimals.

Answer: 0.11

Q6. You have a random variable X with variance 3. Now you multiply X with 2. What becomes the variance of X?

**12**- 3
- 7
- 6

Q7. Imagine youâre investigating the time people wait at traffic lights, a variable which appears to be approximately normally distributed with a mean of 1.3 minutes and a standard deviation of 0.57 minutes. Which of the following intervals contains 95% of the waiting times?

- 0.73 and 1.87
- 1.3 and 2.44
- 0.16 and 1.3
**0.16 and 2.44**

Q8. You investigate the earnings of the 2nd year students in your school. They earn on average âŹ240,-, with a standard deviation of âŹ90,- One person stands out, because sheâs a snooker champion. She makes on average âŹ420,- a week. What is the corresponding z-score of her earnings? Give your answer in one decimal.

Answer: 2

Q9. On average, a proportion of 0.48 newborns are girls. What are the chances that in a family with 4 children there are exactly three daughters.

Give your answer as a proportion, rounding to two decimal places.

Answer: 0.2300314

Q10. Looking at the binomial distribution above, what would be reasonable values for the parameters of this distribution?

- number of trials = 2, probability of success = 0.29
- number of trials = 20, probability of success = 0.29
- number of trials = 2, probability of success = 0.1
**number of trials = 20, probability of success = 0.1**

Q11. A multiple choice exam consists of 12 questions, each having 5 possible answers. To pass you must answer at least 8 out of 12 correctly. What are your chances of passing if you go into the exam without knowing a thing and resort to pure guessing?

Give your answer as a proportion, rounding to three decimal places.

Answer: 0.0005190451

Q12. The total time that I wait for busses on a long trip has the following probability density function.

What is the chance that I will have to wait for more than 30 minutes?

Give your answer as a proportion, rounding to three decimal places.

Answer: 0.125

Q13. The equation above describes a normal distribution for a random variable X.

It appears that the time people in the age range of 20 to 50 years spend

sleeping is approximately normally distributed with a mean of 7 hours

and a standard deviation of 1 hour. Can you estimate the height of this

probability density curve at the mean and also give the unit of this

value?

Give your answer as a proportion, rounding to two decimal places.

Answer: 0.4

Q14. For a normally distributed variable with a mean of 10 and standard deviation of 5, what is the proportion of the data with negative values?

Give your answer as a proportion, rounding to three decimal places.

Answer:pnorm(0, 10, 5) # [1] 0.02275013 # or 0.025

Q15. The following figure shows two lines that are meant to represent the cumulative probability distribution of the age of trees in a young forest where the oldest tree is 10 years.

What can you say about these two cumulative distribution functions (cdfs)?

**Neither of these is a proper cdf.**- The dotted line represents a proper cdf, the dashed line doesnât.
- The dashed line represents a proper cdf, the dotted doesnât.
- Both lines can be proper cdfs.

### Week 5: Basic Statistics Coursera Quiz Answers

#### Quiz 1: Sampling distributions

Q1. What is the difference between descriptive and inferential statistics?

- Where inferential statistics only concerns the sample, descriptive statistics concerns the underlying population.
- Where descriptive statistics is used with discrete variables, inferential statistics is used with continous variables.
- Where descriptive statistics only concerns the sample, inferential statistics concerns the underlying population.
- Where inferential statistics is used with discrete variables, descriptive statistics is used with continous variables.

Q2.

- 1(b), 2(c), 3(a), 4(d)
- 1(d), 2(c), 3(a), 4(b)
- 1(a), 2(b), 3(d), 4(c)
- 1(a), 2(b), 3(c), 4(d)

Q3. Which of the statement(s) is/are correct?

I. A disadvantage of a telephone interview compared to a face-to-face questionnaire is that people tend to be less patient.

II. The cheapest way of collecting data is an online survey.

- Statement II is correct, statement I is incorrect.
- Both statements are correct.
- Both statements are incorrect.
- Statement I is correct, statement II is incorrect.

Q4. How do you call the bias that can occur when not everybody from the population is included in the sampling frame?

- Undercoverage
- Respons bias
- Sampling bias
- Convenience sampling

Q5. Imagine you want to know the length of the beard of every male student in America. You know that the population mean equals 2.2 millimeters and the population standard deviation equals 0.9 millimeters. What will be the mean (in millimeters) of the sampling distribution of the sample mean (i.e., if you take an infinite number of samples)?

(1 decimal; use dot separator)

Enter answer here

Q6. What is the central limit theorem?

- The central limit theorem says that the sampling distribution approximates a bell shape given that the sample is large enough and the population distribution is bell shaped.
- The central limit theorem says that the population distribution approximates a bell shape given that the sample is large enough.
- The central limit theorem says that the sampling distribution approximates a bell shape given that the sample is large enough.
- The central limit theorem says that the mean is centered if the sample size approximates infinity.

Q7. Which of the following statement(s) is/are true?

- The larger the sample, the more the standard deviation of the sampling distribution of the sample mean resembles the standard deviation in the population.
- The standard deviation of the sampling distribution of the sample mean is not affected by the sample size.
- The sampling distribution of the sample mean is the distribution of an infinite number of sample means (with a given sample size).
- The larger the variability in the population distribution, the larger the variability in the sampling distribution of the sample mean.

Q8. You know that the sample size is larger than 30.

- This is a sampling distribution.
- This is a population distribution.
- This could be a population distribution, a data distribution or a sampling distribution.
- This could be a population distribution or a data distribution.

Q9. You know that twenty percent of the people in Amsterdam describe themselves as Hipsters. You ask 400 respondents if they identify as a Hipster or not. What is the standard deviation of the sampling distribution of the sample proportion?

(2 decimals; use dot separator)

Enter answer here

Q10. Which conclusion can you draw if a data distribution is very different from the corresponding population distribution (provided that the sample size is very large)?

- You cannot conclude anything at this point. You have to do further research.
- The sample is biased and does not represent the population well.
- The population is biased.
- This is not a problem. Just continue the analysis.

### Week 6: Basic Statistics Coursera Quiz Answers

#### Quiz 1: Confidence intervals

Q1. You want to know how many hours of sleep new parents lose after they had their first baby. You know that the population mean equals 2.3 hours. Because you canât investigate the whole population, you take a sample of 100 people. You find an average sleep loss of 2.1 hours. What is, based on this sample, the point estimate of your population mean?

- 0.2
- 2.3
- 5.4
- 2.1

Q2. Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?

I. When you want to be really sure that you donât draw the wrong conclusions (e.g., when deciding about administering heavy medication or not) it is always best to use a 90% confidence interval instead of a 95% or a 99% confidence interval.

II. 95% of the values under the normal distribution will fall between -1.96 and 1.96 standard deviations of the mean.

- Statement I is correct, statement II is incorrect.
- Both statements are incorrect.
- Statement II is correct, statement I is incorrect.
- Both statements are correct.

Q3. Because of their sleep deprivation new parents have a hard time focusing. The average number of minutes a new parent can focus equals 3.7. The standard deviation equals 0.8. You assess how long 150 randomly selected new parents can focus and find that the mean equals 3.8 minutes and the standard deviation equals 0.5. What is the 95% confidence interval?

- (3.79, 3.81)
- (3.57, 3.83)
- (3.67, 3.93)
- (3.72, 3.88)

Q4. Youâve asked 55 parents if they have more than one child. It turns out that 77 in 100 parents have more than one child. Compute the 99% confidence interval. (Ignore for now that you donât have at least 15 successes and 15 failures.)

- (63, 91)
- (62, 92)
- (0.63, 0.91)
- (0.62, 0.92)

Q5. A researcher wants to investigate the driving capabilities of new parents. He doesnât know anything about the population so he decides to draw a simple random sample of 88 new parents and to make inferences based on that sample. He makes the new parents drive in a simulator and finds that, on average, they make 2.1 more accidents than people who have not become a parent recently. What are the degrees of freedom?

Enter answer here

Q6. A researcher wants to investigate the driving capabilities of new parents. He draws a simple random sample of 88 new parents and lets them take a test in a drive simulator. He finds that, on average, they fall asleep after 2.1 hours. The standard deviation equals 0.5 hours. Compute the 90% confidence interval.

- (2.01, 2.19)
- (2.02, 2.18)
- (1.99, 2.21)
- (2.00, 2.20)

Q7. Which assumptions donât need to be satisfied for the construction of a confidence interval for a mean?

- The relationship between X and Y must be linear.
- The sample must be random.
- The sample mean must be equal to the population mean.
- The independent variable must be discrete.

Q8. The following statements are about confidence intervals for proportions. Place in order from smallest to largest z-score.

(1) 99% confidence interval

(2) z = 1.645

(3) point estimate Â± 1.96 * SE

- (1) (3) (2)
- (3) (2) (1)
- (2) (1) (3)
- (2) (3) (1)

Q9. A professor wants to know the percentage of new parents who, in the first months after having a baby, sleep more than 2 hours per night less. She wants a margin of error up to 0.10. How many parents does she have to include with a 90% confidence interval? Choose the âsafe approachâ.

- 97
- 96
- 67
- 68

Q10. You have constructed a 99% confidence interval around your sample mean of 11.4. The confidence interval is as follows: (10.1, 12.7). Imagine you take a new sample from the same population and the mean now equals 11.6. What happens to the confidence interval?

- The confidence interval shifts because of the new mean.
- The confidence interval stays the same.
- It depends on the standard deviation of the new sample whether the confidence interval shifts or not.
- You need the population mean to say what happens to the confidence interval.

### Week 7: Basic Statistics Coursera Quiz Answers

#### Quiz 1: Significance tests

Q1. Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?

I. If you conduct a significance test you assume that the alternative hypothesis is true unless the data provide strong evidence against it.

II. The null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis are always mutally exclusive.

- Both statements are incorrect.
- Statement II is correct, statement I is incorrect.
- Both statements are correct.
- Statement I is correct, statement II is incorrect.

Q2. You are interested in the question how long Dutch scuba-divers can stay underwater. You heard that the average number of minutes Dutch scuba-divers can dive without coming to the surface equals 68 minutes. You donât believe thatâs true and decide to conduct a test. Your null hypothesis is that the population mean equals 68. Your alternative hypothesis is that the population mean differs from 68. You question 40 randomly selected Dutch scuba-divers and discover that they can stay underwater for only 64 minutes. The standard deviation is 3 minutes. Do you reject your null hypothesis?

- Yes, because the test statistic is higher than the signficance level.
- Yes, because the test statistic falls in the rejection region.
- No, because the test statistic doesnât fall in the rejection region.
- No, because the test statistic is not higher than the significance level.

Q3. Last year the mean turnover of a group of companies was 430,000 euro. You expect that this yearâs turnover will be different. Your null hypothesis is therefore: ÎŒ = 430,000. Your alternative hypothesis is: ÎŒ â 430,000. You randomly sample 81 companies. The sample mean turns out to be 450,000 euro, with a standard deviation of 100,000 euro. Calculate the test statistic. Which of the following statements is correct?

- You reject the null hypothesis both when using a significance level of 0.10 and a significance level of 0.05.
- You donât reject the null hypothesis neither when using a significance level of 0.10 nor when using a significance level of 0.05..
- You reject the null hypothesis using a significance level of 0.10, you donât reject the null hypothesis using a significance level of 0.05.
- You reject the null hypothesis using a significance level of 0.05, you donât reject the null hypothesis using a significance level of 0.10.

Q4. A researcher decides to investigate the effect of having a newborn baby on parentsâ ability to focus. She decides to do a one-sided test because earlier studies found a negative effect. She formulates both the null and the alternative hypothesis and then decides to use a significance level of 0.05. Next, she starts to gather data and to compute the relevant statistics.

What did the researcher forget to do?

- She should have used a significance level of 0.01.
- She should have gathered data first.
- She should have checked the assumptions.
- She shouldnât have formulated the alternative hypothesis.

Q5. The 95% confidence interval of variable X equals (15.15, 17.09). The sample consists of 302 respondents. The null hypothesis is that the population mean equals 16. The alternative hypothesis is that the population mean is different from 16.

What can you conclude with Î± = 0.05?

- You donât reject the null hypothesis.
- You donât have enough information to conclude anything.
- The confidence interval must be wrong.
- You reject the nulhypothesis: the population mean is not 16.

Q6. Bob wants to know more about the influence of smoking on driving. He draws a sample of respondents, assesses their smoking habits and puts them in a driving simulator. After having collected the data, he decides to conduct a one-sided test. Which consideration(s) will have been the reason for this decision?

- He doesnât know what to expect about the influence of smoking on driving.
- He has a clear expectation about the influence of smoking on driving.
- He wants to make sure he doesnât miss any information about the influence of smoking on driving.

Q7. You want to know more about the time scuba divers practice their diving skills. Before you take a sample you formulate the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis as follows:

- H0: ÎŒ = 400 minutes
- Ha: ÎŒ â 400 minutes

Based on a simple random sample of 100 scuba divers you find a mean of 380. Based on a significance test with Î± = 0.01 you donât reject the null hypothesis.

What could have happened?

- You could have made a type I error.
- You could have made a type II error.
- You could have made a type III error.
- All of the other options are possible.

Q8. A professor wants to know what people prefer: going to the beach or going to the swimming pool. Last year 86% preferred going to the beach. The professor expects this year to be different. She asks 900 people about their opinion and finds that 84% still prefers the beach. What do you conclude based on a significance level of 0.05?

- You donât reject the null hypothesis.
- You reject the null hypothesis.
- You donât have enough information to conclude anything.
- You accept the null hypothesis.

Q9. A professor wants to know how many adults in America have a driving license. He reads an article saying that 78% of Americans possess a driving license, but heâs not so sure of that. The professor has good theoretical reasons to think it should be more than 78%. What are the professorâs null hypothesis and his alternative hypothesis? (Select two answers.)

H0: The (population) proportion of American adults that possess a driving license equals zero.

Ha: The (population) proportion of American adults that possess a driving license is higher than 0.78.

H0: The (population) proportion of American adults that possess a driving license equals 0.78.

Ha: The (population) proportion of American adults that possess a driving license does not equal 0.78.

Q10. Why would a researcher choose a small significance level (say 0.01 instead of the usual 0.05)? (Multiple answers possible.)

- To decrease the probability of making a type I error.
- To decrease the probability of making a type II error.
- To decrease the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when the null hypothesis is true.
- To increase the probability that he rejects the null hypothesis when the evidence is in favor of the alternative hypothesis.

### Week 8: Basic Statistics Coursera Quiz Answers

#### Quiz 1: Final Exam

Q1. What does the test statistic tell you?

- It indicates how many standard errors a point estimate lies from the expected null hypothesis population value.
- Itâs another word for the p-value.
- It indicates whether you should use z- or t-distribution to calculate probability.
- It

indicates how far from the actual population value your sample mean lies.

Q2. In a group of students 25% are enrolled in physics, 23% in sociology, 17% in chemistry, 14% in political science, 12% in anthropology, and 9% in math. You are going to select an individual from the group of students. The probability of event A is equivalent to the probability that you select someone who studies social science (sociology, political science and anthropology) or physics. What is the probability of the event Aâs complement?

- 0.51
- 0.26
- 0.49
- 0.74

Q3. Assume your null hypothesis is ÎŒ = 6. In your sample you find a value that is lower than 6. Is it âeasierâ to reject the null hypothesis with a one-tailed or two-tailed test?

- A one-tailed test.
- A two-tailed test.
- This depends on the level of significance.
- This depends on the P value.

Q4. Someone makes the following assertion: if the sample becomes larger, then the standard deviation becomes smaller. Which of the following statements is correct?

- This assertion does not apply to any distribution.
- This assertion always applies to all distributions.
- This assertion always applies to the sample distribution and the sampling distribution.
- This assertion always applies to the sampling distribution.

Q5. The largest number of Oscars received by a film in year X was 4. This was different in previous years. Below is a probability distribution for the number of Oscars per Oscar winning film. What is the standard deviation of this distribution?

- Number of Oscars
- 1.82
- 1.19
- 6
- 1.32

Q6. You draw a sample from the population of a town (n = 312) and find that of this sample, 23% are highly educated and 27% are low-educated. What is the 80% confidence interval for the proportion of highly educated people in this town?

- (0.21, 0.25)
- (0.20, 0.26)
- (0.25, 0.29)
- (0.23, 0.27)

Q7. What type of table is shown below?

- Data matrix
- Cross table
- Frequency table
- Scatterplot

Q8. You know that there is a strong correlation between the consumption of ice cream and body weight. The Pearsonâs r = 0.78. You also know that the average consumption of ice cream per week is five grams with a standard deviation of 1.5 grams. The average weight is 65 kg with a standard deviation of 15 kg. What is the formula of the regression line?

- Ć· = -502 + 0.078x
- Ć· = 26 + 7.8x
- Ć· = 0.078 â 502x
- Ć· = 7.8 + 26x

Q9. See the sample space below. What is the probability of event B occurring, given that event A has occurred?

- 0.09
- 0.23
- 0.82
- 0.19

Q10. What is a probability?

- The proportion of times that something will occur in the long run.
- The number of times that something occurs in an experiment.
- An uncertainty.
- A P-value.

Q11. 25% of all students find this BS exam

difficult. You select four random students. What is the probability that

exactly two of them find this exam difficult?

- 0.06
- 0.07
- 0.02
- 0.21

Q12. Various forms of bias can occur when we select a sample. What is sampling bias?

- If not everyone in the sample actually participates in the research.
- If not everyone in the population has an equal chance to enter the sampling frame.
- If not everyone in the sampling frame has an equal chance to get into the sample.
- If not everyone in the sample belongs to the population.

Q13. Variable A is normally distributed with ÎŒ = 12.30 and Ï = 3.11. What is the probability that a randomly selected case will have a score of less than 14?

- 0.88
- 0.29
- 0.71
- 0.12

Q14. A random sample of 61 Basic Statistics students were asked what they thought of statistics on a scale of 0 (very stupid) to 100 (very nice). Interestingly, students seem to find statistics quite nice: the sample mean equals 83. The sample standard deviation equals 7. We know that the standard deviation in the population (all BS students) is 8. Calculate the 90% confidence interval.

- (81.53, 84.47)
- (81.24, 84.76)
- (81.32, 84.68)
- (80.99, 85.01)

Q15. You know that for variable A ÎŒ = 1400 and Ï = 300. You also

know that the variable is normally distributed. You decide to change the scores of this variable

into z-scores. What is the mean and standard deviation of this new distribution?

- Mean = 1400, standard deviation = 1.
- Mean = 1400, standard deviation = 300.
- Mean = 0, standard deviation = 1.
- Cannot be calculated on the basis of this information.

Q16. Ten students resit the Basic Statistics exam. Their final grades are: 4, 4, 2, 9, 7, 9, 6, 4, 7, 8. What is the interquartile range?

- 2
- 8
- 4
- 7

Q17. Which of the following is not the explained variance?

- The degree to which the regression equation of X and Y is better at predicting the dependent variable than the average of Y.
- The percentage of variance in Y that is explained by the mean of X.
- The percentage of the variance in Y which is

explained with the regression equation. - The Pearson r squared.

Q18. Look at the following cross table of two ordinal variables. Is there a correlation between variable A and B?

- Yes, there is a negative correlation.
- Yes, there is a positive correlation.
- No, there is no correlation.
- Cannot be seen from the table.

Q19. Look at the table below. Calculate the Pearsonâs r.

- 0.61
- 0.91
- 0.81
- 0.71

Q20. Based on a random sample of n = 2345, the 95% confidence interval of variable X is (7.25, 9.12). You expect that the mean in the population is different from 7 at Î± = 0.05. What can you conclude?

- Nothing, because you have not enough data to determine that.
- The value in the population is indeed different from 7.
- You cannot reject the null hypothesis.
- This confidence interval is wrong.

Q21. Which of the following statements about the regression line is not correct?

- The

constant indicates the place where the regression line crosses the Y-axis. - The regression line is the line of which the sum of the residuals is the smallest.
- The regression line can run horizontally.
- The regression coefficient is the change in the Y value with 1 unit increase in the X value.

Q22. Youâre going to draw a random sample of professional football players because you want to know what percentage have completed high school. You want to have a margin of error of up to 0.03 at a confidence level of 90%. How big should your sample be?

- Minimum 456
- At least 30
- Minimum 748
- Minimum 1068

Q23. 81 random elementary schools were asked for their average exam scores (sample mean = 535, sample standard deviation = 7). Calculate the 98% confidence interval.

- (533.15, 536.85)
- (533.41, 536.59)
- (528.00, 542.00)
- Not possible to calculate based on this information.

Q24. A type I error means that:

- The null hypothesis is true, and you do not reject the null hypothesis.
- The null hypothesis is true, and you reject the null hypothesis.
- The null hypothesis is false, and you reject the null hypothesis.
- The null hypothesis is false and cannot reject the null hypothesis.

Q25. You know that the heights of four people are: 156 cm, 184 cm, 172 cm and 165 cm. What is the standard deviation?

- 28
- 10.23
- 139.58
- 11.81

Q26. Last year the mean turnover of a group of companies was 434,000 euro. You have good reasons to expect that this yearâs turnover will be higher. Your null hypothesis is therefore: ÎŒ = 434,000. Your alternative hypothesis is: ÎŒ > 434,000.

You randomly sample 101 companies from the population. The sample mean turns out to be 450,000 euro, with a standard deviation of 100,000 euro. Calculate the test statistic. Which of the following statements is correct?

- You do not reject the null hypothesis at Î± = 0.05, and not at Î± = 0.10.
- You reject the null hypothesis at both Î± = 0.05 and Î± = 0.10.
- You reject the null hypothesis at Î± = 0.05, but not at Î± = 0.10.
- You reject the null hypothesis at Î± = 0.10, but not at Î± = 0.05.

Q27. Film critics gave the film Basic Statistics: The Movie an average rating of 8.1 (on a scale of 0-10). The standard deviation is 0.7. You drew a random sample of n = 56 from all film critics and asked them to rate the film Basic Statistics: The Movie with a number. What is the probability that the average rating in the sample is greater than 8.0?

- 14%
- 44%
- 86%
- 56%

Q28. You draw a sample from the population of Dutch voters. You do this by randomly selecting 10 voters from each municipality. What kind of sample is this?

- Stratified random
- Cluster random
- Snowball
- Convenience

Q29. What does the 95% confidence interval tell us?

- In 95% of cases when we sample from a population, the population mean falls within the interval:
- sample mean Â± 1.64 * standard deviation of the sampling distribution.
- In 95% of cases when we sample from a population, the sample mean falls within the interval:
- sample mean Â± 1.64 * standard deviation of the sampling distribution.
- In 95% of cases when we sample from a population, the population mean falls within the interval:
- sample mean Â± 1.96 * standard deviation of the sampling distribution.
- In 95% of cases when we sample from a population, the sample mean falls within the interval:
- sample mean Â± 1.96 * standard deviation of the sampling distribution.

Q30. What is a characteristic of the t-distribution?

- The

t-distribution approaches the normal distribution if it has a large standard

deviation. - A t-value that is multiplied with a standard error is equal to the margin of error for a confidence interval of a mean.
- The t-distribution has the same shape as the normal distribution.
- The t distribution has a mean of one.

**More About This Course**

This Specialization covers research methods, design and statistical analysis for social science research questions. In the final Capstone Project, youâll apply the skills you learned by developing your own research question, gathering data, and analyzing and reporting on the results using statistical methods.

**Conclusion**

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Key Difference between Data Analysis and Data Analytics

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**Digital transformation** is when an organization takes advantage of new technologies to redesign and redefine relationships with their customers, employees, and partners.

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**4 modes of persuasion**

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They are: **ethos, pathos, logos, statistics, deliberation and refutation**.

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**7 examples of analytical procedure methods**

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Big data is a collection of data from many different sources and is often describe by five characteristics: **volume, value, variety, velocity, and veracity**.

**What are the 5 data analytics? âș**

5 Types of analytics: **Prescriptive, Predictive, Diagnostic, Descriptive and Cognitive Analytics** - WeirdGeek | Data analytics, Data analysis tools, Data science.

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**Skilled data analysts are some of the most sought-after professionals in the world**. Because the demand is so strong, and the supply of people who can truly do this job well is so limited, data analysts command huge salaries and excellent perks, even at the entry-level.

**How I become a data analyst? âș**

**How to Become a Data Analyst (with or Without a Degree)**

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Operating System- An operating system is **a whole package that manages our computer's resources and lets us interact with it**.

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Which tool helps lowering risk during development as customer feedback is embedded into the design process? Options are : **Story Mapping** (Correct)

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